What are the main ingredients of sapphire currently?

The chemical composition of sapphire is aluminum oxide (Al2O3), which is blue due to the trace element titanium (Ti4+) or iron (Fe2+). It is a trigonal system. The shape of the crystal is often cylindrical, short column, plate, etc., and the geometry is mostly granular or dense. Transparent to translucent, glass luster. The original sapphire refractive index is 1.76-1.77, the birefringence is 0.008, and the dichroism is strong. Heterogeneous. Sometimes it has a special optical effect - the starlight effect. The hardness is 9, and the density is 3.95-4.1 g/cm 3 . No cleavage, crack development. Under certain conditions, beautiful six-shot stars can be produced, called "Starlight Sapphire."

Sapphire can be divided into blue sapphire and brilliant (non-blue) sapphire. The color is best in the Indian cornflower blue. Sapphire is said to protect the king and the monarch from harm, and is known as the "stone of the emperor." The international gem world has designated sapphire as "the birthstone of September", symbolizing love, loyalty and firmness. Sapphire is one of the world's top five precious high-end gemstones.

The difference between sapphire and similar blue gems and synthetic blue gems. Similar blue gemstones include blue spinel, blue tourmaline, blue zircon, blue cone, kyanite, cordierite, and the like. Synthetic gemstones similar to this include synthetic sapphire, synthetic spinel, and cobalt-containing blue glass. Blue pointed raw sapphire

Spar: The color is uniform, the micro-band is gray, the crystal is octahedral, homogeneous, and has no dichroism. Blue tourmaline: the color is greenish blue, the crystal is a complex triangular column, the hardness, density, and refractive index are lower than sapphire, the dichroism is very obvious, and the birefringence is large. Blue zircon: Heat treated zircon with bright color, strong dispersion and high birefringence. Synthetic sapphire: uniform color, clean, rare inclusions, round bubbles, homogeneous body.

Evaluation and purchase of sapphire. The evaluation and purchase factors of sapphire are color, weight, transparency and clarity. The biggest feature of sapphire is that the color is not uniform, the polycrystalline twin crystal is not developed, and the dichroism is strong. The sapphire produced in Myanmar is bright blue (including titanium coloration), which can produce six or twelve stars due to inclusions. Indian Kashmir sapphire, blue cornflower, is a micro-purple purple indigo, bright color, is a high quality sapphire. Sapphire produced in Sri Lanka, Thailand, China and Australia also has its own characteristics. Sapphire is brittle and should be worn and bumped when worn.

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